United Kingdom

Renewable Energy
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Solar Map from HelioClim3v4-MC for 2005

Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom

Evaluating Renewable Energy Policy: A Review of Criteria and Indicators for Assessment: Chapter (Figure 2: Realisable Resource Potential. Source: IEA (2008).)

FIGURE 1: EFFECTIVENESS INDICATOR FOR ONSHORE WIND ELECTRICITY IN THE PERIOD 1998-2004. THE RELEVANT POLICY SCHEMES DURING THIS PERIOD ARE SHOWN IN DIFFERENT COLOUR CODES. SOURCE: EC (2005) ANNEX 2. 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% AT BE DK FI FR DE GR IE IT LU NL PT ES SE UK EU15 Feed-in tariff (FIT) Quota/TGC Tender Tax incentives / Investment grants FIGURE 2: REALISABLE RESOURCE POTENTIAL. SOURCE: IEA (2008). Theoretical potential Technical potential R&D Long-term Barriers ( Mid potential-term non-economic) ...

Evaluating Renewable Energy Policy: A Review of Criteria and Indicators for Assessment: Chapter (Figure 2: Realisable Resource Potential. Source: IEA (2008).)

FIGURE 1: EFFECTIVENESS INDICATOR FOR ONSHORE WIND ELECTRICITY IN THE PERIOD 1998-2004. THE RELEVANT POLICY SCHEMES DURING THIS PERIOD ARE SHOWN IN DIFFERENT COLOUR CODES. SOURCE: EC (2005) ANNEX 2. 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% AT BE DK FI FR DE GR IE IT LU NL PT ES SE UK EU15 Feed-in tariff (FIT) Quota/TGC Tender Tax incentives / Investment grants FIGURE 2: REALISABLE RESOURCE POTENTIAL. SOURCE: IEA (2008). Theoretical potential Technical potential R&D Long-term Barriers ( Mid potential-term non-economic) ...

Wind Resource Measurement: Guidelines for Islands

WIND RESOURCE MEASUREMENT: GUIDELINES FOR ISLANDS JUNE 2015 Copyright IRENA 2015 Unless otherwise stated, this publication and material featured herein are the property of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and are subject to copyright by IRENA. Material in this publication may be freely used, shared, copied, reproduced, printed and/or stored, provided that all such material is clearly attributed to IRENA and bears a notation that it is subject to copyright ( IRENA 2015). ...
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30 Years of Policies for Wind Energy: Lessons from 12 Markets (2012 Edition): Chapter (UNITED KINGDOM (Including SCOTLAND))

UNITED KINGDOM (Including SCOTLAND) MARKET OVERVIEW The United Kingdom (UK) has one of the best wind

30 Years of Policies for Wind Energy: Lessons from 12 Markets (2013 Edition): Chapter (UNITED KINGDOM (Including SCOT LAND))

UNITED KINGDOM (Including SCOTLAND) MARKET OVERVIEW The United Kingdom (UK) has one of the best wind

30 Years of Policies for Wind Energy: Lessons from 12 Markets (2013 Edition): Chapter (UNITED KINGDOM (Including SCOT LAND))

UNITED KINGDOM (Including SCOTLAND) MARKET OVERVIEW The United Kingdom (UK) has one of the best wind

Renewable Energy and Jobs (2013): Chapter (Figure 2.4 Number of jobs per MW at each supply chain tier (construction phase) as in the case of the UK)

FIGURE 2.4 NUMBER OF JOBS PER MW AT EACH SUPPLY CHAIN TIER1 AS IN THE CASE OF THE UK 35.0 30.0 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 25.0 Tier 0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 Onshore Offshore Biomass Wind Wind (Waste) Biomas(Ener s Landfill PV Hydro Solargy Crops) Thermal 1 Construction phase Source: DTI, (2004) Input-output analysis does (see below). To distinguish earlier. Input-output can be used to estimate direct and between direct and indirect jobs, a clear definition of indirect employment (“gross” I-O) or direct, ...

Renewable Energy and Jobs (2013): Chapter (Figure 2.4 Number of jobs per MW at each supply chain tier (construction phase) as in the case of the UK)

FIGURE 2.4 NUMBER OF JOBS PER MW AT EACH SUPPLY CHAIN TIER1 AS IN THE CASE OF THE UK 35.0 30.0 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 25.0 Tier 0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 Onshore Offshore Biomass Wind Wind (Waste) Biomas(Ener s Landfill PV Hydro Solargy Crops) Thermal 1 Construction phase Source: DTI, (2004) Input-output analysis does (see below). To distinguish earlier. Input-output can be used to estimate direct and between direct and indirect jobs, a clear definition of indirect employment (“gross” I-O) or direct, ...

Nurturing offshore wind markets: Good practices for international standardisation: Chapter (2. �Country experiences in standardisation and regulation)

2. C OUNTRY EXPERIENCES IN STANDARDISATION AND REGULATION Denmark, Germany and the UK are important markets meeting took place, Dansk Standard gradually lost for o shore wind, and their varying experiences provide its influence and the IEC 61400 series was introduced useful case studies on how stakeholders have shaped in Denmark. Today the Danish Standards Association the agenda of standardisation in the field and which mirrors developments that occur at the international topics have been of ...

REmap 2030: Full Report: Chapter (Figure 5.17 Current and projected share of renewable energy in the manufacturing industry sector, by country, 2010-2030)

Figure 5.17 Current and projected share of renewable energy in the manufacturing industry sector, by termine the extent to which renewable country, 2010-2030 energy will be deployed in the sector. 5.4.2 Biomass 100% 90% Today, most renewable energy is bio- mass and waste ( 7.8 EJ). In the produc- 80% tion of bricks, tiles and other ceramics, 70% di erent forms of biomass are used in Asian countries. Coconut shells, rice 60% husk and di erent forms of biomass are 50% combusted either for steam ...

IRENA Battery Storage Report 2015: Chapter (Fast regulation in grids with high variable renewable energy shares)

Figure 10: Illustration of battery storage power smoothing Example of Power Smoothing 1200 AC PV Power 1000 AC Power with BatteryBattery Power 80 600 400 200 0 -200 Remaining Battery Storage 251 250.5 250 249.5 12:15 PM 12:30 PM Source: Johnson et al. (2011) by the Italian Energy Regulator in November 2014, Battery storage may be applied to grid-level storage battery storage systems could be used to regulate as well as renewable energy production. In this case, the amount of electricity consumed ...

IRENA Battery Storage Report 2015: Chapter (Fast regulation in grids with high variable renewable energy shares)

Figure 10: Illustration of battery storage power smoothing Example of Power Smoothing 1200 AC PV Power 1000 AC Power with BatteryBattery Power 80 600 400 200 0 -200 Remaining Battery Storage 251 250.5 250 249.5 12:15 PM 12:30 PM Source: Johnson et al. (2011) by the Italian Energy Regulator in November 2014, Battery storage may be applied to grid-level storage battery storage systems could be used to regulate as well as renewable energy production. In this case, the amount of electricity consumed ...

Renewable Energy and Jobs (2013): Chapter (Figure 2.2 Supply chain pyramid for the wind energy industry)

by the German Federal Ministry of the Environment, with employment factors and Input-output analysis, sup- Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, it appears ply chain analysis is used rarely. This could be because of that the number of indirect jobs is larger than the num- data unavailability, the complexity of the analysis or its more ber of direct jobs for all RETs, with solar PV having the business-management (i.e., micro) approach, which may highest multiplier (3.4) and heat pumps having ...
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Ocean Thermal Energy Technology Brief: Chapter (II. Costs and performance)

II. Costs and performance There is limited actual project cost data available for OTEC. Instead, most cost references are based on feasibility studies from a limited number of sources (mainly Lockheed Martin and L.A. Vega). Figure 5 provides an overview of the latest cost projections for a range of OTEC plants. Figure 5 – Capital cost estimates for OTEC plants 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Capacity (MW) Based on data from Muralidharan, 2012 The capital costs projections ...

Ocean Thermal Energy Technology Brief: Chapter (II. Costs and performance)

II. Costs and performance There is limited actual project cost data available for OTEC. Instead, most cost references are based on feasibility studies from a limited number of sources (mainly Lockheed Martin and L.A. Vega). Figure 5 provides an overview of the latest cost projections for a range of OTEC plants. Figure 5 – Capital cost estimates for OTEC plants 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Capacity (MW) Based on data from Muralidharan, 2012 The capital costs projections ...

From Baseload to Peak: renewables provide a reliable solution.: Chapter (Figure 4: Generation cost data for onshore wind power, nuclear, gas and coal power plants (with CCS).)

6 C OSTS AND BENEFITS DETERMINE ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF RENEWABLES High shares of renewables are economically nificantly enhances the competitiveness of renewable e cient in many power systems when both energy. Many climate change mitigation studies, which costs and benefits of all power sources are consider carbon costs, show that renewables are a cru- considered cial mitigation option (IPCC, 2011; GEA, 2012). The IPCC (2011) has shown in a comprehensive review that, in the While the generation ...

From Baseload to Peak: renewables provide a reliable solution.: Chapter (Figure 4: Generation cost data for onshore wind power, nuclear, gas and coal power plants (with CCS).)

6 C OSTS AND BENEFITS DETERMINE ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF RENEWABLES High shares of renewables are economically nificantly enhances the competitiveness of renewable e cient in many power systems when both energy. Many climate change mitigation studies, which costs and benefits of all power sources are consider carbon costs, show that renewables are a cru- considered cial mitigation option (IPCC, 2011; GEA, 2012). The IPCC (2011) has shown in a comprehensive review that, in the While the generation ...

Wave Energy Technology Brief: Chapter (II.) The need for investments)

electromagnetic fields produced from sea cables have impact on migratory fish and other marine organisms. To better grasp the e ects on the environment and streamlining the licensee process, the EU has funded the Streamlining of Ocean Wave Farms Impact Assessment (SOWFIA) project, which has recently delivered a set of guid- ance documents for assessment of environmental and other impacts of wave energy farms (Greaves, et al., 2013) Additionally, the future Maritime Spatial Planning directive ...

Wave Energy Technology Brief: Chapter (III. Current Costs and Cost Projections)

III. Current Costs and Cost Projections With the estimated levelised cost for wave energy farms (10 MW) between EUR 330-630/MWh (SI Ocean, 2013), these costs are considerably higher than other forms of renewables, including o shore wind and tidal current technologies. This is not surprising, given the early stage of technological development and where arrays of 10 MW of total installed capacity still need to be demonstrated. This directly a ects the economies of scale, including the assumptions ...

Wave Energy Technology Brief: Chapter (II.) The need for investments)

electromagnetic fields produced from sea cables have impact on migratory fish and other marine organisms. To better grasp the e ects on the environment and streamlining the licensee process, the EU has funded the Streamlining of Ocean Wave Farms Impact Assessment (SOWFIA) project, which has recently delivered a set of guid- ance documents for assessment of environmental and other impacts of wave energy farms (Greaves, et al., 2013) Additionally, the future Maritime Spatial Planning directive ...

Wave Energy Technology Brief: Chapter (III. Current Costs and Cost Projections)

III. Current Costs and Cost Projections With the estimated levelised cost for wave energy farms (10 MW) between EUR 330-630/MWh (SI Ocean, 2013), these costs are considerably higher than other forms of renewables, including o shore wind and tidal current technologies. This is not surprising, given the early stage of technological development and where arrays of 10 MW of total installed capacity still need to be demonstrated. This directly a ects the economies of scale, including the assumptions ...

REmap 2030: Full Report: Chapter (Figure 3.12 Relation between country renewables potentials and substitution costs from the government and business perspectives)

(AE), United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US). REmap 2030 35 RE share in TFEC in REmap 2030 on... USD -19 (United Kingdom) per GJ based on a business per- Countries that export tend to have higher substitution

REmap 2030: Full Report: Chapter (2.4 Policy costs and benefits)

electricity consumption originating from renewable energy divided by 2.4 Policy costs and benefits TFEC. It can be estimated for the total of all end-use sectors of a country or for each sector separately. 2.4.1 Calculation of the policy cost Three indicators are developed to estimate the financial implications There are di erent ways to estimate the renewable energy share for end- of the implementation of REmap Options. These three indicators are: use sectors (industry, buildings and transport) ...
Renewable Energy
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REmap 2030, Renewable Energy Prospects: Ukraine, a background paper

Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States The analysis starts with national-level data covering both

Synergies between Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: A working paper based on REmap 2030: Chapter (Table 5: Energy savings at the sector level in REmap 2030 compared to the Reference Case, 2030)

Figure 3: Change in TFEC between 2010 and 2030 and related energy savings from the implementation of REmap Options for selected countries 85000 11% 10% 70000 9% 8% 7% 55000 6% 5% 40000 4% 3% 25000 2% 1% 10000 0% -1% -5000 -2% China Denmark France Germany India Italy UK US 2010 2030 Reference Case REmap 2030 Energy savings from REmap Options Note: Energy savings from REmap Options (indicated with black dots in the figure) are estimated in comparison to the Reference Case in 2030, and are referred ...

Synergies between Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: A working paper based on REmap 2030: Chapter (Figure 3: Change in TFEC between 2010 and 2030 and related energy savings from the implementation of REmap Options for selected countries)

Figure 3: Change in TFEC between 2010 and 2030 and related energy savings from the implementation of REmap Options for selected countries 85000 11% 10% 70000 9% 8% 7% 55000 6% 5% 40000 4% 3% 25000 2% 1% 10000 0% -1% -5000 -2% China Denmark France Germany India Italy UK US 2010 2030 Reference Case REmap 2030 Energy savings from REmap Options Note: Energy savings from REmap Options (indicated with black dots in the figure) are estimated in comparison to the Reference Case in 2030, and are referred ...

Synergies between Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: A working paper based on REmap 2030: Chapter (Table 6: Change in the use of technologies that results in energy savings in REmap 2030)

Figure 4: Energy savings from REmap Options by sector for selected countries 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% China Denmark France Germany India Italy UK US Industry Transport Buildings Note: Energy savings from REmap Options are estimated in comparison to the Reference Case in 2030. Electricity-based heating and transport result in savings of nearly 20% in the end-use sectors of Denmark and France. or minor e ciency gains from biomass-based process among the analysed sectors. Energy savings for all heat ...

Synergies between Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: A working paper based on REmap 2030: Chapter (Figure 4: Energy savings from REmap Options by sector for selected countries)

Figure 4: Energy savings from REmap Options by sector for selected countries 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% China Denmark France Germany India Italy UK US Industry Transport Buildings Note: Energy savings from REmap Options are estimated in comparison to the Reference Case in 2030. Electricity-based heating and transport result in savings of nearly 20% in the end-use sectors of Denmark and France. or minor e ciency gains from biomass-based process among the analysed sectors. Energy savings for all heat ...

Synergies between Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: A working paper based on REmap 2030: Chapter (Table 5: Energy savings at the sector level in REmap 2030 compared to the Reference Case, 2030)

Figure 3: Change in TFEC between 2010 and 2030 and related energy savings from the implementation of REmap Options for selected countries 85000 11% 10% 70000 9% 8% 7% 55000 6% 5% 40000 4% 3% 25000 2% 1% 10000 0% -1% -5000 -2% China Denmark France Germany India Italy UK US 2010 2030 Reference Case REmap 2030 Energy savings from REmap Options Note: Energy savings from REmap Options (indicated with black dots in the figure) are estimated in comparison to the Reference Case in 2030, and are referred ...

Synergies between Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: A working paper based on REmap 2030: Chapter (Table 6: Change in the use of technologies that results in energy savings in REmap 2030)

Figure 4: Energy savings from REmap Options by sector for selected countries 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% China Denmark France Germany India Italy UK US Industry Transport Buildings Note: Energy savings from REmap Options are estimated in comparison to the Reference Case in 2030. Electricity-based heating and transport result in savings of nearly 20% in the end-use sectors of Denmark and France. or minor e ciency gains from biomass-based process among the analysed sectors. Energy savings for all heat ...

Synergies between Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: A working paper based on REmap 2030: Chapter (Figure 4: Energy savings from REmap Options by sector for selected countries)

Figure 4: Energy savings from REmap Options by sector for selected countries 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% China Denmark France Germany India Italy UK US Industry Transport Buildings Note: Energy savings from REmap Options are estimated in comparison to the Reference Case in 2030. Electricity-based heating and transport result in savings of nearly 20% in the end-use sectors of Denmark and France. or minor e ciency gains from biomass-based process among the analysed sectors. Energy savings for all heat ...

Synergies between Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: A working paper based on REmap 2030: Chapter (Figure 3: Change in TFEC between 2010 and 2030 and related energy savings from the implementation of REmap Options for selected countries)

Figure 3: Change in TFEC between 2010 and 2030 and related energy savings from the implementation of REmap Options for selected countries 85000 11% 10% 70000 9% 8% 7% 55000 6% 5% 40000 4% 3% 25000 2% 1% 10000 0% -1% -5000 -2% China Denmark France Germany India Italy UK US 2010 2030 Reference Case REmap 2030 Energy savings from REmap Options Note: Energy savings from REmap Options (indicated with black dots in the figure) are estimated in comparison to the Reference Case in 2030, and are referred ...

REmap 2030: Full Report: Chapter (Table 6.1 REmap 2030: An overview)

and the United Kingdom (UK) could reach a total installed wind capacity of at least 300 GW e , nearly