Russian Federation

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Solar Map from HelioClim3v4-MC for 2005

HelioClim3v4-MC Annual and Monthly Global Horizontal Irradiation / Diffuse Horizontal Irradiation and Direct Normal Irradiation for 2005 in kWh/m2. Copyright 2013 MINES ParisTech / Transvalor. These maps combine the standard HelioClim-3 data with an advanced model McClear (MC) that estimates the irradiation that should be received for a given site and given instant if the sky were clear, aka clear sky irradiation. Here MC stands for McClear. McClear is an outcome of the MACC and MACC-II EU-funded ...

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Resource potential)

ANNEX C: Resource potential Figure 20: Total average daily solar radiation on the inclined surface of the southern orientation with an inclination angle equal to the latitude of the area (year) Average solar irradiance (kWh/m2 per dayAverage solar irradiance (kWh/m2 per day) ) No data Less 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 More Source: Popel and Fortov, 2015 Working Paper 79

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Resource potential)

ANNEX C: Resource potential Figure 20: Total average daily solar radiation on the inclined surface of the southern orientation with an inclination angle equal to the latitude of the area (year) Average solar irradiance (kWh/m2 per dayAverage solar irradiance (kWh/m2 per day) ) No data Less 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 More Source: Popel and Fortov, 2015 Working Paper 79

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Figure 21: The average wind speed at a height of 50 m)

Figure 21: The average wind speed at a height of 50 m Wind speed (m/s) No Less 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 More data Source: Popel and Fortov, 2015 Figure 22: Daily solar insolates rates in Russia Level of isolation (kWh/m2 per day) Until 3 3-3,5 3,5-4 4-4,5 4,5-5 Source: GISEE, 2016 80 REmap 2030: Renewable energy prospects for the Russian Federat ion

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Figure 21: The average wind speed at a height of 50 m)

Figure 21: The average wind speed at a height of 50 m Wind speed (m/s) No Less 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 More data Source: Popel and Fortov, 2015 Figure 22: Daily solar insolates rates in Russia Level of isolation (kWh/m2 per day) Until 3 3-3,5 3,5-4 4-4,5 4,5-5 Source: GISEE, 2016 80 REmap 2030: Renewable energy prospects for the Russian Federat ion

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Figure 20: Total average daily solar radiation on the inclined surface of the southern orientation with an inclination angle equal to the latitude of the area (year))

ANNEX C: Resource potential Figure 20: Total average daily solar radiation on the inclined surface of the southern orientation with an inclination angle equal to the latitude of the area (year) Average solar irradiance (kWh/m2 per dayAverage solar irradiance (kWh/m2 per day) ) No data Less 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 More Source: Popel and Fortov, 2015 Working Paper 79

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Figure 20: Total average daily solar radiation on the inclined surface of the southern orientation with an inclination angle equal to the latitude of the area (year))

ANNEX C: Resource potential Figure 20: Total average daily solar radiation on the inclined surface of the southern orientation with an inclination angle equal to the latitude of the area (year) Average solar irradiance (kWh/m2 per dayAverage solar irradiance (kWh/m2 per day) ) No data Less 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 More Source: Popel and Fortov, 2015 Working Paper 79

Wind Resource Measurement: Guidelines for Islands

WIND RESOURCE MEASUREMENT: GUIDELINES FOR ISLANDS JUNE 2015 Copyright IRENA 2015 Unless otherwise stated, this publication and material featured herein are the property of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and are subject to copyright by IRENA. Material in this publication may be freely used, shared, copied, reproduced, printed and/or stored, provided that all such material is clearly attributed to IRENA and bears a notation that it is subject to copyright ( IRENA 2015). ...
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IRENA's Global Renewable Energy Roadmap, REmap 2030: Summary of findings

Summary of findings June 2014 Copyright IRENA 2014 Unless otherwise indicated, material in this publication may be used freely, shared or reprinted, so long as IRENA is acknowledged as the source. This report was first published in January 2014 as the first release of findings from REmap 2030. Some of the contents and data are updated in the current edition, (particularly on pages 25-28, including in Figure 7, and on pages 38-39, including in Table 3). About IRENA The International Renewable ...

Transforming the energy system – and holding the line on rising global temperatures

Moldova, Russian Federation, Serbia, Switzerland, Ukraine. Middle East and North Africa comprises Algeria,

Renewable Energy and Jobs: Annual Review 2019

and the Russian Federation (4% each), and Iran (Islamic Republic of) and the United States (3% each). ... China 4% Russian Federation European Union 4% Pakistan 5% Source: IRENA jobs database. FIGURE 10: HYDROPOWER

Global Energy Transformation: A Roadmap to 2050

as the Russian Federation and Saudi Arabia, the share of renewables in all countries exceeds 40%, and... Case Russian Federation Africa OPEC rest of Africa Middle East India Net Oil Exporter Canada Southeast... 15 20 Russian Federation Africa OPEC rest of Africa Middle East India Net Oil Exporter Canada Southeast... 1.5 Russian Federation Africa OPEC rest of Africa Middle East India Net Oil Exporter Canada Southeast

Renewable Energy Benefits: Leveraging local capacity for onshore wind

RENEWABLE ENERGY BENEFITS LEVERAGING LOCAL CAPACITY FOR ONSHORE WIND IRENA 2017 Unless otherwise stated, material in this publication may be freely used, shared, copied, reproduced, printed and/or stored, provided that appropriate acknowledgement is given of IRENA as the source and copyright holder. Material in this publication that is attributed to third parties may be subject to separate terms of use and restrictions. Appropriate permissions from these third parties may need to be secured ...

Renewable Energy and Jobs – Annual Review 2017

Brazil, the Russian Federation and Viet Nam. R Gender discrimination in renewable energy employment seems... Viet Nam Russian Federation Brazil India China Rest of the World Large Hydropower Viet Nam Brazil China Russian Federation 38% 1.63 1.66 1.74 1.41 1.52 21% 16% 12% 7% 8% India FIGURE 3: EVOLUTION... Brazil, the Russian Federation and Viet Nam, which together account for 62% of the total (Figure 4). China’s

Renewable Energy and Jobs – Annual Review 2017

Brazil, the Russian Federation and Viet Nam. R Gender discrimination in renewable energy employment seems... Viet Nam Russian Federation Brazil India China Rest of the World Large Hydropower Viet Nam Brazil China Russian Federation 38% 1.63 1.66 1.74 1.41 1.52 21% 16% 12% 7% 8% India FIGURE 3: EVOLUTION... Brazil, the Russian Federation and Viet Nam, which together account for 62% of the total (Figure 4). China’s

Renewable Energy in District Heating and Cooling, A sector roadmap for REmap: Chapter (Box 1: District heating in the Russian Federation)

in the Russian Federation The Russian Federation operates the largest district heating system across the... in the Russian Federation supplies both buildings and industry, which accounts for about 35%-45% of district... in the Russian Federation are generally less e cient than in other countries with similar climates. Boiler... in the Russian Federation is around 75% (about 10-15 percentage points less than in Europe or the US)

Renewable Energy in District Heating and Cooling, A sector roadmap for REmap: Chapter (Box 1: District heating in the Russian Federation)

in the Russian Federation The Russian Federation operates the largest district heating system across the... in the Russian Federation supplies both buildings and industry, which accounts for about 35%-45% of district... in the Russian Federation are generally less e cient than in other countries with similar climates. Boiler... in the Russian Federation is around 75% (about 10-15 percentage points less than in Europe or the US)

Renewable Energy in District Heating and Cooling, A sector roadmap for REmap: Chapter (Box 1: District heating in the Russian Federation)

in the Russian Federation The Russian Federation operates the largest district heating system across the... in the Russian Federation supplies both buildings and industry, which accounts for about 35%-45% of district... in the Russian Federation are generally less e cient than in other countries with similar climates. Boiler... in the Russian Federation is around 75% (about 10-15 percentage points less than in Europe or the US)
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Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Technology cost and performance of analysed technologies)

REmap 2030: Renewable energy prospects for the Russian Federat ion76 ANNEX B: Technology cost and performance of analysed technologies Main fuel type Capacity factor Lifetime Capacity Over- night cap. cost O&M costs Fuel demand Con- version e - ciency (-) (%, cap) (years) (kW) (USD/kW) (USD/kW/yr) (GJ/kW/yr) (%, e ) Industry Autoproducers, CHP electricity part (solid biomass) Processing residue 42 25 10 000 757 19 17 80 Geothermal 55 42 100 1500 38 100 Biomass boilers Harvesting residue ...

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (5.3 Renewable energy cost and benefits)

renewables). Russian Federation for the period 2014-2024 and a On average, the government perspective results

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (3.4 Energy prices and subsidies)

and consumption by the residential sector then account The government has also authorised gas price rises to for 12% and 7% of the total production, respectively in European netback parity (European price minus the 2014 (AC, 2015). extra costs of transportation and export duties). The plan was to gradually increase both domestic gas and electricity tari s, with industry prices achieving parity in 3.4 Energy prices and subsidies 2011, and households a few years later. With the global recession, ...

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (5.3 Renewable energy cost and benefits)

renewables). Russian Federation for the period 2014-2024 and a On average, the government perspective results

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (3.4 Energy prices and subsidies)

and consumption by the residential sector then account The government has also authorised gas price rises to for 12% and 7% of the total production, respectively in European netback parity (European price minus the 2014 (AC, 2015). extra costs of transportation and export duties). The plan was to gradually increase both domestic gas and electricity tari s, with industry prices achieving parity in 3.4 Energy prices and subsidies 2011, and households a few years later. With the global recession, ...

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Technology cost and performance of analysed technologies)

REmap 2030: Renewable energy prospects for the Russian Federat ion76 ANNEX B: Technology cost and performance of analysed technologies Main fuel type Capacity factor Lifetime Capacity Over- night cap. cost O&M costs Fuel demand Con- version e - ciency (-) (%, cap) (years) (kW) (USD/kW) (USD/kW/yr) (GJ/kW/yr) (%, e ) Industry Autoproducers, CHP electricity part (solid biomass) Processing residue 42 25 10 000 757 19 17 80 Geothermal 55 42 100 1500 38 100 Biomass boilers Harvesting residue ...

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Figure 5: Development of approved maximum overnight capital cost levels for the wholesale and retail markets, 2014-2024)

of the Russian Federation and refer to the maximum approved overnight capital cost levels for the wholesale... of the Russian Federation and refer to the maximum approved overnight capital cost levels for the wholesale

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Figure 19: Renewable energy cost-supply curve by renewable energy resource in 2030 from the government perspective)

Figure 18: Renewable energy cost-supply curve by renewable energy resource in 2030 from the business perspective 40 Biomass power EUR (CHP, D H) 30 Geothermal (remote ) Geothermal (heat ) Biomass heat (CHP, DH ) 20 Solar thermal (buildings ) 10 Biomass (industry ) Hydro (large ) Biomass power (CHP,DH ) 0 Biomass power Siberia (CHP, D H) -10 Biomass heat EUR(CHP, DH ) Biodiesel (transport) Biomass heat EUR (building s) -20 Bioethanol (advanced) Biogas (transport ) Bioethanol (conventional ...

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Table 12: Financial indicators for renewable energy use in Russia from the government perspective)

would be 11% less and coal demand 4% less. The liberated (based on the LCOE of wind onshore and hydropower). fossil fuel resources can also contribute to increasing the The ability to utilise this potential, however, is subject country’s exports of these to other countries. to great uncertainty, since this electricity may not be sold at all times to neighbouring countries. In addition, Lower fossil fuel use cuts CO2 emissions. In 2030, realising the potential of power exports to China and Russian ...

Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper: Chapter (Figure 18: Renewable energy cost-supply curve by renewable energy resource in 2030 from the business perspective)

Figure 18: Renewable energy cost-supply curve by renewable energy resource in 2030 from the business perspective 40 Biomass power EUR (CHP, D H) 30 Geothermal (remote ) Geothermal (heat ) Biomass heat (CHP, DH ) 20 Solar thermal (buildings ) 10 Biomass (industry ) Hydro (large ) Biomass power (CHP,DH ) 0 Biomass power Siberia (CHP, D H) -10 Biomass heat EUR(CHP, DH ) Biodiesel (transport) Biomass heat EUR (building s) -20 Bioethanol (advanced) Biogas (transport ) Bioethanol (conventional ...
Renewable Energy
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Renewable Energy Prospects for the Russian Federation, a REmap working paper

FOR THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION REMAP 2030 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROSPECTS FOR THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION APRIL 2017... of the Russian Federation Following the Presidential decree of the Russian Federation of July 21, 2015... OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FOR THE PERIOD UP TO 2035), Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, Moscow... OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2014), Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation,

Renewable Energy in District Heating and Cooling, A sector roadmap for REmap: Chapter (Box 1: District heating in the Russian Federation)

in the Russian Federation The Russian Federation operates the largest district heating system across the... in the Russian Federation supplies both buildings and industry, which accounts for about 35%-45% of district... in the Russian Federation are generally less e cient than in other countries with similar climates. Boiler... in the Russian Federation is around 75% (about 10-15 percentage points less than in Europe or the US)

Renewable Energy in District Heating and Cooling, A sector roadmap for REmap: Chapter (Box 1: District heating in the Russian Federation)

in the Russian Federation The Russian Federation operates the largest district heating system across the... in the Russian Federation supplies both buildings and industry, which accounts for about 35%-45% of district... in the Russian Federation are generally less e cient than in other countries with similar climates. Boiler... in the Russian Federation is around 75% (about 10-15 percentage points less than in Europe or the US)

Renewable Energy in District Heating and Cooling, A sector roadmap for REmap: Chapter (Box 1: District heating in the Russian Federation)

in the Russian Federation The Russian Federation operates the largest district heating system across the... in the Russian Federation supplies both buildings and industry, which accounts for about 35%-45% of district... in the Russian Federation are generally less e cient than in other countries with similar climates. Boiler... in the Russian Federation is around 75% (about 10-15 percentage points less than in Europe or the US)

Renewable Energy in District Heating and Cooling, A sector roadmap for REmap: Chapter (Box 1: District heating in the Russian Federation)

in the Russian Federation The Russian Federation operates the largest district heating system across the... in the Russian Federation supplies both buildings and industry, which accounts for about 35%-45% of district... in the Russian Federation are generally less e cient than in other countries with similar climates. Boiler... in the Russian Federation is around 75% (about 10-15 percentage points less than in Europe or the US)

Global Bioenergy Supply and Demand Projections: A working paper for REmap 2030: Chapter (8.2 Supply-side options)

parison, the contribution of renewable power increases would have to grow by 2.1-4.6 EJ per year. It is essential from 37% to 51%. At the sectoral level, there are also im- to evaluate whether this potential could be deployed in portant changes. The share of electro-mobility reaches pace with the cited demand growth rate. 2% from the 1% achieved in REmap 2030, whereas the share biofuels is halved from 13% in REmap 2030 to 6% Figure 23 shows the contribution of di erent factors to in REmap-E. ...

Global Bioenergy Supply and Demand Projections: A working paper for REmap 2030: Chapter (Figure 17: Annual biomass demand growth estimates between 2010 and REmap 2030)

Global Bioenergy Supply and Demand Project ions for the Year 2030 33 In comparison to demand growth, bioenergy supply is estimated to grow by between 2.1 EJ and 4.6 EJ/yr over the entire period. The low end of supply growth is suf- ficient to meet the growth of all modern bioenergy de- mand for power and heat generation. Meeting demand in the growth of primary biomass for liquid biofuels will require additional supply growth. Figure 17 shows the annual growth in bioenergy demand for the 26 REmap ...

Global Bioenergy Supply and Demand Projections: A working paper for REmap 2030: Chapter (Figure 19: Comparison of global biomass demand and supply estimates in the six world regions, 2030)

Figure 19: Comparison of global biomass demand and supply estimates in the six world regions, 2030 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Africa Asia Europe N. Amer ica OECD Pac ific L. America Demand Supply low Supply high average cost of biomass is estimated at USD 8.3 per GJ a comparison of the global biomass demand with the worldwide. total supply potential for the six world regions. With the exception of Asia (accounting for 40% of the global The ...

Global Bioenergy Supply and Demand Projections: A working paper for REmap 2030: Chapter (Figure 16: Breakdown of biomass supply by regions, 2030)

Figure 16: Breakdown of biomass supply by regions, 2030 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Africa Asia Europe N. Amer i c a OECD Pac i fi c L. America Energy crops Harvesting residue Processing residue Animal and household waste Fuel wood Wood residue Wood waste account for a large share of the total global biomass Comparison of the estimated supply and supply. Energy crops in North America ( 7 EJ/yr), Africa demand for di erent bioenergy ...

Global Bioenergy Supply and Demand Projections: A working paper for REmap 2030: Chapter (4.3 �Biomass supply potential and costs in 2030)

to REmap 2030. At the sectoral level, the contribution biomass use shares in their building sectors. In Nigeria, of biomass to total energy ranges between 7% (power) increased use of modern cooking equipment to sub- and 14% (transport) for the total of all REmap countries. stitute for ine cient cook stoves raises the share of modern biomass use. The highest share of biomass use is estimated in Brazil (39%), followed by France (26%) and Denmark (22%). Biomass-based power generation accounts for ...

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